Professor Amato is since 2013 a Judge of the Italian Constitutional Court. Before that, he was a part-time professor at the EUI in Florence and gave yearly seminars at the Law School at the Columbia University, New York. He was the Prime Minister of Italy on two occasions, Treasury Minister and Vice-President of the Convention on the Future of Europe. He is a former member of the Chamber of Deputies and former Minister of Interior in the Government of Italy. From 1994 to 1997, he headed the Italian Antitrust Authority. He also was a Full Professor of Comparative Constitutional Law at the University of Rome from 1975 to 1997. He has written books and articles on the economy and public institutions, antitrust, personal liberties, federalism and comparative government. In 2002, he was elected Honorary Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Dr. Hanan Ashrawi is a distinguished Palestinian leader, legislator, activist, and scholar who served as a member of the Leadership Committee and as an official spokesperson of the Palestinian delegation to the Middle East peace process, beginning with the Madrid Peace Conference of 1991. Making history as the first woman to hold a seat in the highest executive body in Palestine, she was elected as member of the Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in 2009. As a civil society activist, she founded the Independent Commission for Human Rights (1994), MIFTAH, the Palestinian Initiative for the Promotion of Global Dialogue and Democracy (1998) and AMAN, the National Coalition for Accountability and Integrity (1999). She serves on the advisory and international boards of several global, regional and local organizations, and she is the recipient of numerous awards from all over the world and several academic accolades, including eleven honorary doctorates from universities in the U.S., Canada, Europe, and the Arab world.
Professor Shlomo Ben-Ami is currently the Vice President of the Toledo International Center for Peace, of which he is a co-founder, as well as George Mac Govern Professor of International and Public affairs at Columbia University. He was appointed Israel’s Foreign Minister in 2000, and Minister of Public Security in 1999. He was a board member of International Crisis Group and an advisor to Colombia's government in peace deal with the guerrilla. He also was Israel’s first Ambassador to Spain and was a member of Israel’s delegation to the Madrid Peace Conference. He participated with Prime Minister Barak in the Camp David Summit and led the Israeli negotiating team in all the different phases of the negotiations with the Palestinians, including at Taba. In 1996, he was elected to the Knesset, where he served as a member of the Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee. Professor Ben-Ami taught in the history department of Tel Aviv University, was a visiting fellow at Oxford University, and the Woodrow Wilson International Center in Washington. He is the author of many books including Scars of War, Wounds of Peace. Throughout 2009, he served in the Advisory Board of The International Commission on Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament.
Ambassador Lakhdar Brahimi is presently a distinguished senior fellow at the Centre for the Study of Global Governance at the London School of Economics and a a governing board member of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. He served as the United Nations and Arab League Special Envoy to Syria. He is a member of “The Elders”, a small group of Elder Statesmen and Public Figures created in 2007 at the initiative of President Nelson Mandela and Chaired by Archbishop Desmond Tutu. He is the former Algerian Foreign Minister, as well as Under Secretary General of the United Nations for Special Assignments in Support of the Secretary-General’s Preventive and Peacemaking Efforts. He spent two years at the Institute for Advanced Study, in Princeton, NJ, USA. Ambassador Brahimi has done extensive work in the field of conflict resolution, peace-making, peace-keeping and worked more generally on peace and security issues. In 1988/1990, he mediated the end of the Lebanon civil war. He also took an active part in the struggle for liberation of his country (and served as Algeria’s Ambassador to Egypt and the United Kingdom. He also was Under Secretary General of the League of Arab States. He chaired an independent panel established by Secretary-General Annan to review United Nations Peace Operations. The report was endorsed by the “Millennium Summit” held in September 2000 and became known as the “Brahimi Report”.
Doctor Zbigniew Brzezinski is a Trustee and Counselor at the Center for Strategic & International Studies and Robert E. Osgood Professor of American Foreign Policy at the Johns Hopkins University’s Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies. From 1977 to 1981 he served as National Security Advisor to President Jimmy Carter. In 1981, awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. He has held several positions within the United States government, including on presidential advisory boards and commissions, member of the Policy Planning Council of the Department of State. He is the author of many books, and his latest one is ‘Strategic Vision: America and the Crisis of Global Power’.
William J. Burns
Ambassador Bill Burns is President of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. He retired from the U.S. Foreign Service in 2014 after a 33-year diplomatic career. He holds the highest rank in the Foreign Service, career ambassador, and is only the second serving career diplomat in history to become Deputy Secretary of State. Prior to his tenure as deputy secretary, he served as Under Secretary for Political Affairs, as U.S. Ambassador to Russia, Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern affairs, and Ambassador to Jordan. He was also Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for Near East and South Asian Affairs at the National Security Council. Ambassador Burns is the recipient of three Presidential Distinguished Service Awards and a number of Department of State awards, and four honorary doctoral degrees in International Relations. In 2013, Foreign Policy named him “Diplomat of the Year.”
James F. Dobbins
Ambassador James Dobbins is a Senior Fellow and Distinguished Chair in Diplomacy and Security at the RAND Corporation. He has held State Department and White House posts including Assistant Secretary of State for Europe, Special Assistant to the President, Special Advisor to the President and Secretary of State for the Balkans, and Ambassador to the European Community. He has served on numerous crisis management and diplomatic troubleshooting assignments, including Special Envoy for Afghanistan and Pakistan, Kosovo, Bosnia, Haiti, and Somalia for the administrations of Barack Obama, George W. Bush, and Bill Clinton. In 2013 he returned to the State Department to serve as the Obama administration's Special Representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan. He is the lead author of RAND's three volume History of Nation Building and Choices for America.
Secretary Chuck Hagel is currently on the Board of Trustees of RAND, and a Distinguished Executive in Residence at Georgetown University, as well as a Distinguished Statesman at the Atlantic Council. He was the 24th Secretary of Defense. He is the only Vietnam veteran and the first enlisted combat veteran to serve in that position. He also served two terms in the United States Senate (1997-2009) representing the state of Nebraska. He previously was a Distinguished Professor at Georgetown University, Co-Chairman of the President’s Intelligence Advisory Board, Chairman of the Atlantic Council, Chairman of the United States of America Vietnam War Commemoration Advisory Committee, and Co-Chairman of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund Corporate Council. He served on the Secretary of Energy’s Blue Ribbon Commission on the Future of Nuclear Power. He is the author of the book ‘America: Our Next Chapter’.
Efraim Halevy is currently the Chairman of the Israel National Center for Jewish History. He until recently served as head of the Center for Strategic and Policy Studies, Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He served as head of the National Security Council and National Security Advisor to Prime Minister Ariel Sharon on 2002-2003, as head of the Mossad on 1998-2002, as Israeli Ambassador to the European Union on 1996-1998. He was deputy Head of the Mossad on 1990-1995, and for for three five-year periods between 1980-1995, he commanded three divisions as division chief. He served in the Israel Embassy in Washington. D.C. (1970-1974) and in the Israel Embassy in Paris (1976-1979).
Lee H. Hamilton
Congressman Lee H. Hamilton is director of The Center on Congress at Indiana University. He is currently also a member of the President’s Homeland Security Advisory Council, the CIA External Advisory Board, and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Task Force on Preventing the Entry of Weapons of Mass Effect on American Soil. Before that, he served as President and Director of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. He served as Chairman and ranking member of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs and as Chair of the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. He was Co-chair of the Iraq Study Group, Vice-chair of the 9/11 Commission and Co-chair of the 9/11 Public Discourse Project to monitor implementation of the Commission’s recommendations.
Daniel C. Kurtzer
Daniel C. Kurtzer is the S. Daniel Abraham Professor of Middle East Policy Studies at Princeton University’s Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs and currently serves as a member of the Secretary of State’s Foreign Affairs Policy Board. During a 29-year career in the U.S. Foreign Service, Ambassador Kurtzer served as the United States Ambassador to Israel and as the United States Ambassador to Egypt. He also served as a speechwriter and member of the Secretary of State’s Policy Planning Staff; as Deputy Assistant Secretary for Near Eastern Affairs; and as Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Intelligence and Research. Kurtzer has also previously served as an advisor to the Iraq Study Group and is the co-author of Negotiating Arab-Israeli Peace: American Leadership in the Middle East (2008), co-author of The Peace Puzzle: America’s Quest for Arab-Israeli Peace, 1989-2011(2013), and editor of Pathways to Peace: America and the Arab-Israeli Conflict (2012).
Monica Maggioni is an Italian journalist, and is currently President of RAI—the Italian national public television. She is also Vice-President of EBU, the European Broadcasting Union. Ms. Maggioni is a former war correspondent, editor and editor-in-chief for the main news outlets in RAI. In 2003, she was the only Italian journalist embedded with the American ground forces in Iraq during the second Gulf War. Since then, she has traveled extensively in Iraq and covered all major developments, reporting from Baghdad and Mosul among other cities. In 2008, she relocated to the U.S. to cover the presidential campaign that led to the election of Barack Obama. She has served as both Editor for the Foreign News Team and Special Features Section, as well as Anchor for several programs at TG1.
Robert Malley Former Visiting Fellow
Robert Malley served as Special Assistant to the President and White House Coordinator for the Middle East, North Africa, and the Gulf Region under President Barack Obama. He previously was Program Director for Middle East and North Africa at the International Crisis Group. From 1998-2001, Dr. Malley served as Special Assistant to President Bill Clinton for Arab-Israeli Affairs, playing a key role in the 2000 Camp David peace summit. Prior to that, he served on the President’s National Security Council staff as Executive Assistant to National Security Advisor Sandy Berger and Director for Democracy, Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs.
Samuel A. Nunn
Senator Sam Nunn is Co-Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Nuclear Threat Initiative, a charitable organization working to reduce the global threats from nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. In addition, he has continued his service in the public policy arena as a distinguished professor in the Sam Nunn School of International Affairs at Georgia Tech and as chairman of the board of the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, DC. He served as a United States Senator from Georgia for 24 years (1972-1996) and is retired from the law firm King & Spalding. He first entered politics as a Member of the Georgia House of Representatives in 1968. After active duty service in the U.S. Coast Guard, he served six years in the U.S. Coast Guard Reserve. During his tenure in the U.S. Senate, Senator Nunn served as Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee and the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. He also served on the Intelligence and Small Business Committees.
Thomas R. Pickering Chairman
Thomas R. Pickering holds the rank of Career Ambassador, the highest in the U.S. Foreign Service. In a diplomatic career spanning five decades, he was U.S. ambassador to the Russian Federation, India, Israel, El Salvador, Nigeria, and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Pickering also served on assignments in Zanzibar and Tanzania. From 1997 to 2001, he was U.S. Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs. From 1989 to 1992, he was Ambassador and Representative to the United Nations in New York. He also served as Executive Secretary of the Department of State and Special Assistant to Secretaries William P. Rogers and Henry A. Kissinger from 1973 to 1974. Prior to that, he was briefly the President of the Eurasia Foundation. Following his retirement from government, he served as Senior Vice President for the Boeing Company, and is currently Vice Chairman at Hills & Company, which provides advice and counsel to a number of major US enterprises. In 1983 and in 1986, Pickering won the Distinguished Presidential Award and, in 1996, the Department of State’s highest award – the Distinguished Service Award. He is a member of the International Institute of Strategic Studies and the Council on Foreign Relations. In 1984, he was awarded an honorary doctor-in-laws degree from Bowdoin College, and has received similar honours from 12 other universities. Along with former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Admiral Michael Mullen, Ambassador Pickering led a State-Department-sponsored panel investigating the attack on the U.S. diplomatic mission in Benghazi.
Brent Scowcroft Chairman Emeritus
Brent Scowcroft has served five presidents, and is the only person to have served two presidents – Henry Ford and George H. W. Bush– as National Security Advisor. It was Scowcroft who coined the term and laid the foundation for the “New World Order.” He currently serves on numerous corporate and non-profit boards. His prior 29-year military career began with graduation from West Point and concluded at the rank of Lieutenant General following service as the Deputy National Security Advisor. Out of uniform, he continued in a public policy capacity by serving on the President’s Advisory Committee on Arms Control, the Commission on Strategic Forces and the President’s Special Review Board, also known as the Tower Board. From 1982 to 1989, he was Vice Chairman of Kissinger Associates, Inc., an international consulting firm. In this capacity, he advised and assisted a wide range of U.S. and foreign corporate leaders on global joint venture opportunities, strategic planning and risk assessment. He earned his Masters and Doctorate in International Relations from Columbia University.
Peter D. Sutherland KCMG is United Nations Special Representative of the Secretary General for Migration and Development. He also serves as a non-executive director on the Boards of Allianz SE, Koc Holding A.S. and BW Group Limited. He is an international advisor to Goldman Sachs, member of the International Advisory Board of BP plc and a member of the European Advisory Board of Eli Lilly. He was Founding Director General of The World Trade Organization, formerly GATT (1993-1995) and EC Commissioner responsible for Competition Policy (1985-1989). He has served on the Boards of thirteen major companies in Europe and the US. His publications include the book ‘Premier Janvier 1993 ce qui va changer en Europe’ (Paris University Press 1989) and numerous articles in law journals. He chaired the Committee that produced the Sutherland Report for the European Council on the implementation of the Internal Market of the EEC.
Paul A. Volcker
Paul A. Volcker was until recently Chairman of the Economic Recovery Advisory Board under President Barack Obama. He was Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System from 1979 to 1987. He served in the Federal Government for almost 30 years, serving under five presidents. Prior to his appointment as Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, he served as President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. He is former Chairman of Wolfensohn & Co., Inc., as well as Professor Emeritus of International Economic Policy at Princeton University . He divided the earlier stages of his career between the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Chase Manhattan Bank, and the U.S. Treasury Department.
James D. Wolfensohn
James D. Wolfensohn is Chairman of Wolfensohn & Company, LLC, a private investment firm and advisor to corporations and governments. He was the ninth president of the World Bank Group (beginning in 1995). At the end of his second term, he assumed the post of Special Envoy for Gaza Disengagement for the Quartet on the Middle East. He helped coordinate Israel’s planned withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and spearheaded reconstruction efforts as Palestinians assumed sovereignty over the area. He is also Chairman of the advisory group of the Wolfensohn Center at the Brookings Institution. He became Chairman of Citigroup International Advisory Board on April 18, 2006, and is also advisor to Citigroup’s senior management on global strategy and on international matters. Prior to joining the Bank, Mr. Wolfensohn was an international investment banker. He is an Honorary Trustee of the Brookings Institution, a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Century Association in New York.